Better late than never: the first reported case on damages for late payment

5 April 2022
By Anthony McGeough

Quadra Commodities S.A v XL Insurance Co SE and Others

Ever since the Enterprise Act 2016 ushered in the ability of insureds to claim damages against their insurers for the late payment of insurance claims, the sector has been waiting to see how this legislation would play out in practice, and in particular what would constitute a ‘reasonable’ time for paying claims.

That wait is finally over.


The policyholder, Quadra Commodities, specialised in the trade of agricultural commodities including grains, oil seeds and vegetable oils. In 2019, a fraud now known as the ‘Agroinvestgroup Fraud’ unravelled and revealed that Agroinvestgroup, a loosely associated group of companies involved in the production, storage and processing of agricultural products, had defrauded the policyholder.

A claim was notified under the policyholder’s marine cargo open cover insurance policy in February 2019. The insurer denied all liability for a variety of reasons, including that the policyholder had no insurable interest, and that the loss was purely financial with no loss of physical property (for which the insurer maintained the policyholder was not insured).

Section 13A of the Insurance Act 2015 (“the Act”)

While the details of this claim are well worth a read (see here for the full judgment) interest in the case has focused on the claim for damages pursuant to s.13A of the Act (a copy of the wording of s.13A can be found here).

As a primary point the Court was clear that the issue of what was a “reasonable time” in which the claim should have been paid must be considered separately to the Defendants’ case as to whether there were reasonable grounds for disputing the claim.

The onus is on the insured to show payment was made after the “reasonable time” within which the insurer should have paid sums due in respect of the claim: whereas the insurer carries the burden of proof for showing that there were reasonable grounds for disputing the claim.

In considering the question of what was a “reasonable time”, the Court considered that the fact that the Defendants’ actual conduct of the claims handling could be said to have been too slow or lethargic, was not of itself an answer. The Court looked to the non-exhaustive list of factors referred to in s. 13A (3) of the Act and the accompanying Explanatory Notes (all the while attempting to keep separate the question of whether or not there were reasonable grounds for disputing the claim).

The Court concluded that, given the nature and complicating circumstances of the claim, including the origins of the claim in the Agroinvestgroup Fraud and the destruction of documents, the reasonable time in which the claim should have been paid was not more than about a year from the notice of loss.

The one-year period would have been a reasonable time for the insurer to investigate and evaluate the claim, and then pay it. However, this was predicated on the assumption that there were no reasonable grounds for disputing the claim or part of it.

Turning then to whether or not there were reasonable grounds for disputing the claim the fact that the Court may ultimately find that those grounds were wrong did not automatically infer that those grounds were unreasonable. On the facts, the Court agreed that in the circumstances there were reasonable grounds for reaching that conclusion.

Ultimately, while it could be said that the way in which the Defendants conducted their investigations was too slow, as this aspect of their conduct occurred within a period throughout which there were reasonable grounds for disputing the claim there was no breach of the s.13A implied term.


While the policyholder was successful in its claim for an indemnity, it was not successful in its argument relating to s.13A of the Act.

Any s.13A claim will be highly fact specific, but in circumstances where there are fairly significant complicating factors, a “reasonable time” of no more than a year to investigate, evaluate and pay a claim (which is not a lot of time in the grand scheme of a complex loss) appears to be a positive decision for policyholders. Large losses can be unpalatable for insurers, but they may now think twice before delaying investigations in order to test a policyholder’s resolve, especially in circumstances where ultimately there are no reasonable grounds to dispute the claim.

Anthony McGeough is a Senior Associate at Fenchurch Law